Chapter 18 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
Last chapter we discussed a few of the many scientific problems with the Big Bang. Yet in spite of all these problems, many in the secular scientific community insist it is the only possible explanation for the universe as we know it. If you are one of those who believe in the big bang, I suppose I will call you a Banger. (For many scientific reasons, I absolutely do not believe the big bang cosmology.) After reading the following, I hope you will agree. I apologize in advance for two relatively lengthy quotations of over 100 words each, but I believe you will see their importance as we evaluated the scientific relevance of the so-called Big Bang.
Since I do not believe in the Big Bang, some would call me a Bible Thumper. Some have even called me an idiot or a moron. As an ER physician, I can say categorically that none of those accusations are true. Still, you might choose any number of other insults or expletives which are leveled at anyone (scientist, physician, educator, or student) who dares question the currently prevailing big bang cosmology. I have been insulted many times in a similar vein by brainwashed, self-absorbed, college freshmen with no training whatsoever in the sciences, yet they believe in the Big Bang with a religious fervor. So, at any rate, I will call you, and said college freshmen, Bangers. Why?
Because Bangers, with their unquestioning groupthink are a danger to the scientific community. They are an embarrassment to science as a whole. They stand in the way of real scientific progress by their unassailable devotion to their atheistic and evolutionary mindset. And I am certainly not the only one who believes this. As explained by Tom Watkins, retired Military Scientist, the big bang is not only a mere theory, it is a very poor theory indeed. In fact, there are astronomical problems with the Big Bang…
Unfortunately, we also found some verifiable evidence that cannot be explained by the BB theory. For instance, there is an imbalance of matter and anti-matter and there is much less lithium than there should be. Some other inconsistencies are so complex that they usually go by names such as the horizon problem, the flatness problem and the monopole problem. (look them up) There are others.
And then there is the simple matter of the timing of the BB. If we see the universe is expanding and theorize that it must have been smaller in the past, wouldn’t it be necessary to know how large it is now in order to project how long it took it to expand to its present size? Even at speed C. We can not see past 13.7 BLY out but for a variety of reasons, the observable diameter of the universe is actually about 93 billion light years and the diameter of the whole universe beyond that can be seen may be as large as 3 x 10 (to the 23 power) times larger than 93 BLYs. That is a large number but the difference (between that large number and 13.7) is explained, not by the BB but by the expansion of space itself by some, as yet, unknown process.
One other interesting fallacy is related to the cosmological constant. The error between observation and calculated (conjectured) vacuum energy of space is a factor of 1 x 10 to the 120th power. That is the largest error between theory and observation of anything in any science. This is called the Vacuum Catastrophe. It is hard to relate to the size of this error, it is so big. (1)
For those who cannot comprehend 10 to the 120th power, it is estimated that the number of atoms in the entire universe is approximately 10 to the 80th power. So that means that 10 to the 120th power is 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times larger than the number of atoms in the entire known universe. That it the ERROR in the so-called “cosmological constant” that Bangers rely on.
So for those of you who are truly of a scientific mindset (not group thinking Bangers), I hope you will recognize that those who tell you that the Big Bang is settled science are the real science deniers. They deny the matter/antimatter problem, the horizon problem, the monopole problem, the flatness problem, the cosmological constant discrepancy, the Vacuum catastrophe, and more. You see, for a Banger, there is no possible way to scientifically disprove the Big Bang. It is an Article of Faith.
Even the Bangers admit this. A 2017 article by Fraser Cain on Cosmic Inflation, reads, “The Big Bang was one of the greatest theories in the history of science. Although it did have a few problems, cosmic inflation was developed to address them. Although there have been a few false starts, astronomers are now performing a sensitive enough search that they might find evidence of this amazing inflationary period. And then it’ll be Nobel Prizes all around.” (2) Note the words “might find evidence.” The inflationary period is so critical that the entire theory collapses without it, and yet we have NO evidence to substantiate it!
So in spite of what Bangers tell you, their theory is not proven or settled in any way. There are myriad problems and confounding variables, some of which are more vast than the universe itself. But the true absurdity of their group think is explained in the following excerpt, from a 2018 post on Quora.com, by Bud Rapanault, in which we see that the big bang theory fails in almost every scientific sense, both BEFORE the so-called inflationary period, and AFTER!
“According to the big bang model, the “universe” sprang into being 13.8 billion years ago from a physically inexplicable initial condition wherein the entire universe was compressed into a volume quite a bit smaller than a gnat’s ass.
This remarkable and quite inexplicable initial condition then transitioned, for an inexplicable reason, to a somewhat explicable condition. At that point, the model mathematically invokes an unobservable, ad hoc, inflation field to transition this “universe” to an even more explicable expanding state.
None of the foregoing has any empirical evidence to support it. It all took place, according to the theory, in a deep mythological past that is impervious to direct observation; the claimed events lie beyond the realm of science. Therefore, the model, to that point, is an unscientific mathematical absurdity. It says nothing scientifically meaningful about the nature of the cosmos.
It is then claimed that the post-absurdity, post-inflation “universe” can be modeled using standard physics to create an observable “universe” that might be said to resemble the cosmos we observe.
Except that, the big bang model’s version of our observed cosmos contains two significant features, dark matter and dark energy. Together they are said to comprise 95% of the matter-energy content of the “universe”. These features are predictions of the model; their existence is required to make the model agree with observations. However, no empirical evidence for either can be found. They do not exist in the cosmos we observe and measure. They exist only in the mathematical (big bang) model that requires them.
Therefore, it can be said that from its absurd mythological beginning to its empirically baseless description of a “current universe”, the big bang model bears no significant structural resemblance to the physical reality we actually observe and measure. The big bang model is nothing but a vapid mathematicism. That it is widely taught as unchallengeable scientific orthodoxy to impressionable students like Mr Fraser is a scandal.“(3)
Sorry Bangers. The improbable, imaginary Big Bang is not settled science at all.
Chapter 17 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
Where did the universe come from?
Secular Academics believe it created itself from nothing. Well, technically it was a from an infinitesimally small tiny bubble of nothing.
Where did the bubble come from?
In quantum physicis, a quantum fluctuation (or vacuum state fluctuation, or vacuum fluctuation) is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space, as explained in Werner Heisenberg‘s uncertainty principle. (Wikipedia)
Or as written in the Physics ArXiv blog, “At the heart of their thinking is Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. This allows a small empty space to come into existence probabilistically due to fluctuations in what physicists call the metastable false vacuum.”(1)
Stated in common English, supposedly this quantum vacuum state (nothing) can (temporarily) do something, and (permanently) create everything (our universe) out of nothing…. all because of an “uncertainty principle”. So no matter how you phrase it, or what you call it, it would mean that where there was absolute, complete nothingness… something appeared for no reason, with no cause, and no predecessor.
Now if this reads like nonsense, it is because it IS nonsense. The uncertainty principle, in its simplest form, simply states that you cannot accurately measure both the position (location) and the velocity (speed) of a particle because the process of measuring will by definition require altering one or the other (position or velocity).
Encyclopedia Britannica explains, “Ordinary experience provides no clue of this principle. It is easy to measure both the position and the velocity of, say, an automobile, because the uncertainties implied by this principle for ordinary objects are too small to be observed. The complete rule stipulates that the product of the uncertainties in position and velocity is equal to or greater than a tiny physical quantity, or constant (h/(4π), where h is Planck’s constant, or about 6.6 × 10−34 joule-second). Only for the exceedingly small masses of atoms and subatomic particles does the product of the uncertainties become significant.” (2)
But even if you DID believe the secular atheists’ myths about the Big Bang based on these secular mind games that are far more philosophic than scientific… even if you accepted that the universe somehow created itself, then there are all the same questions about where the universe came from, but only moved to another level. Questions like:
If all the Big Bang scientists believe in an expanding universe, what is the universe expanding into? (Did Space exist a priori?)
What happened just before the Big Bang? (Cosmologists differ… they have no idea)
Did the Big Bang have a location? Where was it? Is earth at the center? (Because if it is that has enormous space-time implications.)
If nothing can instantaneously create everything, can we all be instantaneously replaced by another Bang?
If they still don’t know if atoms and light are particles or waves, how can secular science claim to know how, when, where or why the Universe began?
If you believe the Universe can create itself (something you cannot even begin to understand), what keeps you from believing in an Almighty Supreme Being (a being we are also completely incapable of comprehending) who has the power to create all things?
Secular cosmology clearly and emphatically does not have all the answers. Don’t let them bully you into believing nonsense. Problems with the “Big Bang” are overwhelming. Yet we are told by supposed “scientists” that it is an established fact. What utter nonsense. Here are just a few of the unresolved scientific problems with the Big Bang.
Problem #1. The vacuum catastrophe. Those who would like to create something out of nothing have always existed. The perpetual motion machine has always been a dream. If you read a little bit about the big bang, you will soon find that it is nothing more than another version of the perpetual motion machine. Creating everything out of nothing. Someone wrote a formula (Quantum Field Theory) that says there would be vast amounts of energy available if there was actually a state of nothingness. Someone else recalculated the formula and it turns out the value of vacuum energy was actually 10¹²⁰ times less than the prediction made by Quantum Field Theory! Which, it turns out, is less than nothing. This can also be referred to as a cosmological constant problem, which is explained on the Red Shift Academy website as follows: (3)
So, a large vacuum energy presents a huge problem for
General Relativity because the absolute amount of vacuum
energy has a real physical meaning. In fact, the
Cosmological constant and the vacuum energy differ by
about an astonishing 120 orders of magnitude! This
is the infamous "Cosmological constant problem" which
remains one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of physics
in the modern era.
Problem #2. 95% dark matter… dark energy… WIMPS? Astronomers now calculate that the universe consists of 4.9 percent ordinary matter, 26.8 percent dark matter, and 68.3 percent dark energy. (1) The rest is made up of WIMPS (Weakly Interactive Massive Particles). What are WIMPS? Can they be seen, felt, tasted, heard, or measured in any way… no. How do we know they exist? We don’t. Why do the astronomers suggest WIMPS and dark matter and energy are there? Because the same formulas on which they base the Big Bang and the Age of the Universe say they MUST be there. Or else the formulas are wrong! (Now there’s an idea!) As Scott Dodelson (a cosmologist and the head of the Department of Physics at Carnegie Mellon University) states on the site Space.com, ” we’re not sure our current way of thinking is correct because it essentially requires us to make stuff up, namely dark matter and dark energy. It could be that we really are just a month away from a scientific revolution that will upend our whole understanding about cosmology and does not require these things.” (4)
Problem #3. Dispersion forces. In the first stages of the universe, there was no reason for cohesion (the forces of dispersion were much stronger). This means scientists can’t explain galaxy formation. Just like Problem #1 (Big bang should not have happened), Problem #3 means the Galaxies had no reason to form. Picture any explosion of any size in any situation, and you will see what this means. If something is blown apart into tiny fragments by some great energy, the fragments travel at great speeds getting further apart from each other and from the center, until at some point they are overcome by some other force or energy. In the case of the Big Bang, there were no other forces in existence. There was no other energy in existence. Thus the explosion could never have formed galaxies, or planets, or any other structures.
Problem #4. Thermodynamics One. The Big Bang clearly violates the 1st law of thermodynamics, which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Every counter-argument to this is ineffectual, or requires “special circumstances”, or assumes some other plane of existence was also present. Proponents of the Big Bang will argue that this problem can be escaped by utilizing the argument that this was a closed system. However, assuming a closed system assumes something pre-existent to the Bang itself. So again no Philosophical or Scientific cause of 1st origins has been explained.
Problem #5. Thermodynamics Two. The Big Bang also contradicts the Second Law of Thermodynamics (entropy), which states that everything we see or measure in the universe is gradually “running down” or progressing from a higher state of energy to a lower state of energy. The entire universe and all of creation must be considered as a single “closed system” that is just chock full of energy in the form of stars and heat and motion and light, just to name a few. The energy had to come from somewhere. In the same way it could not create itself (See Problem #4), it also could not wind itself up to higher levels (Problem #5). As Professor John Cimbala, Professor of Mechanical Engineering with a Ph.D. in aeronautics puts it, “One can only conclude that the universe had a beginning, and that beginning had to have been caused by someone or something operating outside of the known laws of thermodynamics.”(5)
Problem #6. Expansion. The Big Bang requires an early expansion rate that was at speeds greater than the speed of light. The very same scientists who claim that they can know the age of the Earth and the universe based on Uniformitarian principles, using currently measured rates for the speed of light and the decay of isotopes have a HUGE problem here. They admit that immediately after the BB, the expansion rate of the universe had to be much greater than the speed of light. This means they are happy to suspend the scientific laws of the universe when it fits their purposes and preferred theories. Just not when it involves Creation. See previous chapter on Uniformitarianism.
Problem #7. Matter/Antimatter. If there really was a Big Bang, then equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have been expected. Yet we find no such evidence. Many theories and solutions have been proposed, but none answer the question. All require some “other” force or condition. In other words, astronomers and scientists have no explanation for why the universe we live in contains only electrons and no positrons. Only quarks and no anti-quarks. Only protons and no anti-protons.
Problem #8. Constantly changing Constants. With all the supposedly scientific precision of the calculations on which the age of the universe rest, no one even knows the value of the Hubble constant! Hubble’s initial calculations for the value for the expansion rate (Hubble Constant) was approximately 500 km/s/Mpc or about 160 km/sec per million-light-years. This would have meant the Universe was only 2 billions years old. Others have calculated the constant to be as low as 2 km/s/Mpc. The “current” accepted value is generally assumed to be 70.0 km/sec/Mpc. In fact some now call it the Hubble Parameter rather than the Hubble constant. This was all supposedly put to rest in about 2008 with the latest accepted value. We shall see… In the meantime, as you can tell from Problems 1 through 7, it is merely vapid and rapidly changing mathematical formulas, not a serious explanation for the origin or the universe.
Chapter 16 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
It sounds like it might be the title of a new Stephen King book. “The Uniformitarians”. Pretty scary stuff, right?
Or maybe it might be a new religion. “Don’t listen to those Uniformitarians, they are a cult!” (This is too close to the truth for comfort.)
But in reality it is another facade adapted by the secular scientific community. Geologists and cosmologists tell us they can apply the rules of the universe as we now see them, and predict the past (supposedly some 14 billion years) based on current laws of physics and current rates of physical processes. They will tell you that based on the Doctrine of Uniformity, the earth “must” be 5 billion years old, and the universe “must” be 14 billion years old. Uniformitarianism states that the changes in the past can be measured and understood because they involve “continuous and uniform processes”. That all sounds great, perhaps even scientific, but can they really be measured and predicted? And do they really involve continuous and uniform processes? Has this been proven? Do we have any proof or evidence supporting uniformitarianism, or do secular scientists just use this as a talking point, and then change the rules whenever it suits them?
As defined in the dictionary (originating in Geology but used in cosmology as well):
u·ni·form·i·tar·i·an·ism nounthe theory that changes in the earth’s crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes.
According to Wikipedia, it is “an unprovable postulate that cannot be verified using the scientific method… Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity, refers to the invariance in the principles underpinning science, such as the constancy of causality, or causation, throughout time, but it has also been used to describe invariance of physical laws through time and space. Though an unprovable postulate that cannot be verified using the scientific method, uniformitarianism has been a key first principle of virtually all fields of science.”(1) It is important to note that the Doctrine of Uniformity and the principle of Uniformitarianism are unprovable. (Especially when so many secular scientist claim they KNOW the age of the Earth and the age of the Universe.)
But there is another consideration that is perhaps even more important in practice and in principle. Not only is the Doctrine of Uniformity unprovable, but the principle of uniformitarianism also has never truly been applied, because in every setting of science, whether astronomy, cosmology, evolutionary biology, or geology, there are glaring problems that require major adaptions or exceptions for the principle to be even loosely applied. As stated by Roger Patterson, “The ideas presented in the textbooks are based on uniformitarian assumptions and have many problems that are not discussed, despite the presence of phrases like “we know” and “scientists have shown”. (2) For example:
Secular scientists apply the rules of modern physics to the formation of the universe under the Nebular Hypothesis. But according to the rules of physics, the particles that might or might not form after such an explosion would not stick together (coalesce) or undergo accretion, and thus could not form planets, or stars, or galaxies.
Further, they would of necessity have had to travel at speeds far greater than the speed of light, an obvious and absurd exception to the principles of physics and a glaring exception to the application of uniformitarian principles.
Or for another example, in the study of biology, there is a well known and accepted “Law of Abiogenesis”. It is, simply stated, “life cannot come from non-life”, or in other words non-living matter cannot spontaneously come to life. Everyone knows this is true. Everyone accepts this, except if you believe in Evolution. In order to believe in evolution, you must first accept that life magically created itself out of a bunch of random chemicals, and then reproduced itself. Each step is impossible, but yet this is what our institutes of “higher learning” expect students to accept.
Let me give one more example. The Moon rocks collected from the Moon were dated at 4.5 billion years of age using secular “uniformitarian” assumptions. But using the lunar recession models (based on current rates, or even “adjusted” rates) the Moon would have been quite literally touching the earth just a billion years or so in the past. So the scientists make exceptions, or disallow the evidence, or ignore the findings, but they cannot uniformly apply them.
Geology offers many other examples, in which current processes could not have created the earth as we find it. Fossil layers, rates of mountain erosion, seafloor sediment deposition, and polystrate fossils could not have occurred as described by the Old Age Earth textbooks. The rate of uplift of the Himalayas is far too great to be accounted for by Uniformitarian assumptions. In many cases, the Biblical Flood offers a much more sensible model than uniformitarianism. As an example, did you know that one single mine in Canada’s tar sands can move thirty billion tons of sediment a year? That is double the amount moved by all the rivers in the world combined. If that is true, then imagine the amounts which might be moved or shifted during Ice ages, meteor impacts, massive volcanic eruptions, or a Global Flood! It is so astronomical that it boggles the mind… and completely discounts any possibility of geographic “uniformitarian” assumptions. Nevertheless, even though Old Age estimates violate their own premises of “uniform and continuous processes”, the geology texts insist on Old Age estimates for the Earth.
And in yet another strong refutation, Uniformitarian assumptions on evolution should show that somewhere in the world, species are evolving as we speak. In order for the billions upon billions of evolutionary changes necessary to have occurred in just a few hundred millions of years, we should see evolution regularly as species advance along the evolutionary scale. Yet in the entire recorded history of the world, thousands of years, we have no record of a single example of evolution.
So whenever a biology or geology prof tells you something is billions of years old, you can be sure there is more than sufficient evidence to dispute that statement. Do your research, and the Uniformitarian assumptions of Old Earth and Old Universe will fall apart. Uniformitarian assumptions are unproven, unscientific, and insufficient for determining history, and they are certainly inadequate by any definition for evaluating or proving anything about origins. Uniformitarianism gets an F in History.
(2) Patterson, R., Evolution Exposed, Answers in Genesis, 2008, P. 68.
For ever since the world was created, people have seen the earth and sky. Through everything God made, they can clearly see his invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature. So they have no excuse for not knowing God. — Romans 1:20 NLT
Chapter 15 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
In this book, we have had much to say about scientism. It is likely that for many readers this is their first exposure to that term. Scientism is the irrational, unproven, and unscientific belief that all the questions to life, the universe, history, and mankind can be found through scientific means. In other words, it is the unfounded belief that “science has all the answers.” If this book were to accomplish no more than introducing the concept and initiating a serious societal discussion on the implications of scientism, it would be a success. Of course, I believe it can do much more than that, to enhance the real and practical applications of science, and to place science in its proper place in God’s created order.
But what is scientism, and what does the average person need to know about scientism? And why should anyone be concerned with the prevalence of scientism in society today?
First, scientism is philosophy masquerading as science. It is the proverbial wolf in sheep’s clothing. If you are a scientist, you may not be enough of a philosopher to recognize its blatant falsehood. If you are a philosopher you might believe you do not know enough about science to refute its claims. If you are an average man or woman on the street you might just accept scientism, thinking “surely all those academic people can’t be wrong.” Nevertheless, scientism has never been proven true by ANY method, let alone the scientific method!
Second, scientism refutes itself. You don’t have to be “smart enough” to refute it! It is SELF-REFUTING! Scientism claims that the only things we can know about the universe are those things which have been tested and proven scientifically… but scientism itself has not been tested or proven scientifically. Thus belief in scientism is not only irrational. It is UNSCIENTIFIC. Ethical, unbiased scientists, for example, would not reject (out of hand with no evidence) the possibility that the universe originated at the hand of an omnipotent Creator. They would not claim to “know” there is no God. To do so is unscientific!
Third, scientism causes people to reject their faith. To the practitioners of scientism, faith and religion (and especially Christianity) are viewed as unscientific. If you believe the false tenets of scientism, you become suspicious of everything except that which scientism promotes. You may believe, for instance, in evolution, although it is entirely UNSCIENTIFIC, and has been proven scientifically and statistically and biologically and biochemically impossible. But you absolutely will not entertain the possibility of an Omnipotent Creator God, which is the most probable and likely and reasonable explanation for the universe and the wonder of life.
Fourth, many things are better and more rationally explained by belief in a Creator than by science. J P Moreland in Ten Things You Should Know about Scientism, says there are at least 5 things science cannot explain but theism (belief in God) can:
The origin of the universe.
The origin of the fundamental laws of nature.
The fine-tuning of the universe. (It is incredibly fine-tuned for life.)
The origin of consciousness.
The existence of moral, rational, and aesthetic objective laws and intrinsically valuable properties. (1)
Fifth, a firm, logical, scientific, and philosophically sound exposure of scientism may save more souls than thousands of evangelists. This is because, at this point in history, so many of the benefits of science are easily seen, and are so much depended on, that much of society has come to believe that even sloppy science is better than meticulous faith. This is of course, not true. In fact, sloppy science is not science at all, and it is only by the rigorous application of the scientific method that scientific advances are made.
But Scientism is not rigorous. Scientism is not science. Scientism is not even good philosophy. It is by all definitions, and at all levels, a personally and societally destructive phenomenon. It must be addressed by pastors, real scientists, and real philosophers at every opportunity and exposed for the false teaching it really is.
Or as written by Thomas Burnett at the American Association for the Advancement of the Sciences, “It is one thing to celebrate science for its achievements and remarkable ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the natural world. But to claim there is nothing knowable outside the scope of science would be similar to a successful fisherman saying that whatever he can’t catch in his nets does not exist (15). Once you accept that science is the only source of human knowledge, you have adopted a philosophical position (scientism) that cannot be verified, or falsified, by science itself. It is, in a word, unscientific.” (2)
For much more on this topic, please see chapter Three; Evolution, Scientism, and the Demise of Atheism.
Chapter 14 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
1. directly opposed or contrasted; mutually incompatible.
Some things can’t co-exist. Like the immovable object and the unstoppable force. Like the light in a totally dark room. Like belief in evolution and accepting scientific reason. The practical application of scientific principles is antithetical to a belief in evolution.
But you say, “I thought science had proved evolution.”
Let’s start with a little history. Prior to Einstein’s wonderful discoveries, most scientists believed in a created universe. Then Einstein himself believed not in a Big Bang, but in a static, eternal universe. After that, we have seen expanding, shrinking, vacillating, and bouncing models for the universe. Currently, most scientists believe in a 14 billion-year-old expanding universe. But the status of cosmology is constantly changing. If that sounds like the science of cosmology is not settled… it is because indeed, it is not.
Interestingly, the current crop of atheistic scientists will say science is incompatible with religion, and especially with the Bible. Yet many of the most influential scientists of the past were Bible-believing Christians. These included Isaac Newton (mathematician, astronomer and theologian), Francis Bacon (father of the scientific method), Robert Boyle (founder of modern chemistry), John Dalton (atomic theory), Gregor Mendel (father of modern Genetics), and of course Lord Kelvin (who laid the foundations of physics). Perhaps you, like many, believe that we know so much more now, that we cannot any longer believe in “fairy tales” like the Bible. But what if it is the other way around?
Scientific beliefs, since they are always based on the latest newest technology, frequently change. They vacillate. They adapt and they adjust. Old theories are tossed out like garbage, like dirty smelly old socks. The new is always embraced and trumpeted to the public as though it were Eternal Truth. But therein lies the rub. If we depend solely on the latest scientific finding for our definition of Truth, our foundation is pretty shaky. You can guarantee that the scientists of the next generation will look back at us and wonder “How could they have believed that to be scientific? We know better now!”
If we choose to base our understandings of the meaning of life and the origins of the universe on science, then we should be absolutely certain that the scientific foundations of our beliefs are 100 percent firm. There should be NO room for doubt. Zero tolerance.
I can say with absolute certainty that the scientific foundations of modern science are not that firm. Scientists disagree on the age of the universe, the age of the earth, whether the earth is at the center of the universe, how big the universe is, and how and when the moon was formed. Scientists also disagree vehemently on whether evolution can occur, how it could occur, and if there is any evidence it has occurred. Scientists disagree on whether light is a particle or a wave, and on what causes gravity. Scientist have no idea what causes magnetism. Scientists have no idea what “dark matter” is, or what “dark energy” is, or whether they really even exist!
Still, in our schools and universities, with missionary zeal, our students are told there is no God. They are told the Bible is a fairy tale. They are told we are evolved from the apes. The foundations and underpinnings of their Christian faith are systematically destroyed. And our youth flounder and lose their way in heartbreaking numbers. Many look for answers in drugs or alcohol. Others look for wealth or power or success. But one thing they are encouraged NEVER to do is look to God’s word, the Bible. This is ridiculed and has supposedly been “proven” (by virtue of the latest fads in science) to be false.
But unfortunately, our youth, as well as our entire society, are paying the price for believing the irrational, wild musings and imaginations of secular atheists like Stephen Hawking and Richard Dawkins. These ungodly men have pushed their agenda with eloquence, but not with science. They have had a huge following, but that following has not freed society from the chains of belief in God, as they promised. Instead we see millions more now suffering under mental illness, drug dependency, sex addiction, and gender confusion.
Nevertheless, one thing is certain amidst all the uncertainty. Evolution did not happen. I believe it has been proven scientifically and statistically to be an impossibility. Not a single atheist has an explanation for the origin of life, other than to say “There is no God so it must have just happened somehow.” (Not so scientific after all.) For that matter, no scientist has ever offered any reasonable explanation for the origin of matter. “There was a big bang, and it happened.” Not at all scientific either, when you get down to it. Moreover, the inane suggestions of secular scientists that the big bang occurred as a result of a “quantum fluctuation” are not really explanations at all. A fluctuation in what? Something had to exist, in order for there to be any sort of fluctuation! In fact, when seen objectively, the Big Bang is patently ridiculous. (Much more on this to follow in chapters 17 and 18.)
In other chapters, we deal with the false, illogical and impossible “primordial soup” model, and with the scientific proof that the universe could not have originated in a “Big Bang” (If you believe that pseudo-scientific postulate, stay tuned).
For now, just consider this quote about mutations and evolution by Lee Spetner. “But all these mutations reduce the information in the gene by making a protein less specific. They add no information and they add no new molecular capability. Indeed, all mutations studied destroy information. None of them can serve as an example of a mutation that can lead to the large changes of macroevolution. … Whoever thinks macroevolution can be made by mutations that lose information is like the merchant who lost a little money on every sale but thought he could make it up on volume.” (1)
John 16:13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all the truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come.
Modern atheistic scientists behave in a manner that is a lot like the stories told of lemmings. What does a lemming do when you tell it there is a cliff? It keeps going. What does an evolutionist do when he finds abiogenesis (life magically appearing from non-life) is impossible? He makes up a scientifically and statistically impossible story about lightning and “pre-biotic soup”, and keeps believing in evolution.
What does a lemming do when he sees the ocean? He keeps going, runs over the edge, and into the ocean. What’s an evolutionist do when he finds the geologic strata are much more readily explained by a Global flood and are NOT by theories of hundreds of millions of years? He doubles down on “his side” of the evidence and keeps on believing in spite of the facts.
In all the old stories, the lemming keeps on running to its own death and destruction, in spite of evidence it may see directly in front of its own eyes. In the same way the evolutionist keeps on believing that his way is the only way to interpret the facts, even when the Bible often provides a better explanation for the findings in geology, biology, astronomy, and physics than uniformitarian assumptions (the belief that all rates of biological, geological, and chemical change have remained constant) .
How does an evolutionist explain the origin of the universe? He makes up a term he calls a “quantum fluctuation”. (There was nothing, then for some reason something happened to nothing and everything appeared.) Now I challenge any “scientist” to explain what that is, where it came from, and why anyone should actually believe that over the Biblical account of creation!
The one thing that unifies modern atheistic scientists is their complete refusal to accept the possibility of a Creator God. So is it any wonder that their often irrational, unscientific, biased studies always support the outcome that there was a Big Bang and suddenly “it just happened”. They believe there was no God, no Creator, because human scientists in their pride have said so. And so some of us have believed, at least until the facts about the earth and life and genomics and geology began to show HUGE holes in their logic.
Stephen Hawking said, “Scientists have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge” (1) And he also said, “Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.” (2) Yet atheistic scientists for the last 100 years have consistently turned away from any new knowledge, fact, or scientific finding that does NOT support their presuppositions about the origin of life or the Universe. In this, modern science has condemned itself, by not applying the scientific method fairly and rationally to all areas of study.
I would think Hawking’s seemingly rational quote “One can’t predict the weather more than a few days in advance,” would have attributed a little more humility to the man. But instead, he pretended he KNEW when and how the universe began, and postulated in a grandiose fashion that “There is no heaven or afterlife” (as though he KNEW this). He bragged, “My goal is simple. It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all.” (3) How insanely prideful and conceited! How tragically misplaced was his faith in scientism!
And this is one of the men modern scientists consider a hero? Does the reader know that NONE of Hawking’s predictions have been verified? None of his black hole radiation has been measured. The explanation from the Guardian, in bold headlines, is this: “We still don’t have the technology to verify Stephen Hawking’s big ideas.” (4)
And yet like lemmings, professors at colleges and universities gleefully follow his inane and unprovable “scientific discoveries” as though they are “the gospel truth”… and sadly, perhaps to the atheist community they are.
Evolutionists and atheistic scientists have an ethics problem. They are, quite honestly, unethical.
Perhaps they can be forgiven their lack of ethics, because it has been pointed out many times by many authors that if we humans are indeed the product of molecules to man evolution, then there is no substantive or foundational reason that men should be ethical. If we are merely the product of a billion generations of survival of the fittest, then our only ethical and moral imperative is to survive at all costs. We may lie, steal, rape, kill, abuse, and destroy, as long as it makes ourselves or our offspring more likely to survive. That is the real true state of ethics for evolutionists.
Second, if atheists are correct and we are all here as the result of some cosmic accident, then there is no moral authority to our choices and decisions. One moral choice is just as good as another. Each person can argue for their own moral choices in the public square, but in reality, not one can claim to be “truth” and not one can be claimed to be false. If there is no first cause (God) for all things, or if the first cause of all things is an accident, a fluke, a meaningless big bang, then all subsequent choices are equally meaningless as well. Morality is meaningless, futile, empty, and vain.
However (and even more importantly) I believe that atheists also have a very real and present ethical problem with today’s cosmology, because they have become such proponents for their latest viewpoints that they tell our youth that they “know” the universe is 14 billion years old. They say they “know” evolution is true. The National Academy of Sciences states evolution is a fact. (1) Stephen Gould and others insist it is an established incontrovertible fact. (2) Many modern Zoologists will tell anyone willing to listen that evolution is a firmly established fact, and it is indeed the foundation for all study of biology and the life sciences.
Yet tens of thousands of scientists and educated persons see things differently. The fossils that some use to “prove” evolution are just as easily used to prove creation. The geological strata that some scientist say are “proof” of evolution, are seen by some other scientists as being far better evidence for a cataclysmic flood as described in Genesis. So when you hear an atheist or evolutionist professing loudly and dramatically that we “know” the earth is 4.5 billion years old and “evolution is a proven fact”, it begins to appear that they are more interested in propaganda than in science. They prefer talking points to honesty.
In fact, if we are open and honest, the unbiased discussion of scientific exploration of the universe that began under notable Christians such as Galileo, Newton, and Keppler, has been hijacked and side-tracked by modern atheists. The six principles of scientific study have been violated on numerous fronts by atheists who place their distaste God above their scientific integrity. Why, because they have stated a priori, that they disavow any possibility of a Creator. But what about their version of “creation”?
Atheists accuse Christians of having “closed minds” when it comes to creation. But what about the Big Bang hypothesis? Is it really scientific? Let’s examine the Big Bang in light of the Six Principles of Scientific Thinking.
Have important alternatives for the finding been excluded? No one has, (or at least in this life) is ever capable of excluding the possibility that God Created the universe.
Can we be sure that A causes B? No honest scientist is SURE that the big bang occurred. They do not know where or when or how or why it might have occurred. In their own writings, we can find much evidence of their doubts and disagreements. So we cannot be sure that the Big Bang caused the formation of the universe.
Falsifiability. Can the theory be disproved? Since the Theory of the big bang is purely hypothetical, and was not seen, and cannot be proven or measured, it is also true that it cannot be disproved.
Can the principle be replicated in other studies? Of course not. No one can replicate the Big Bang. If it occurred (and I will later illustrate why this was impossible) it occurred once only. Never again to be “recreated” by humankind or by nature.
Is the evidence as strong as the claim? The Big Bang Proponents claim that nothing existed (not even the concept of existence, or time or matter) and then there was some sort of a quantum fluctuation in the nothing, and “bang” everything appeared. Nonsense. Nothing plus nothing or multiplied by nothing equals nothing. Nothing fluctuated is still nothing.
Occam’s razor. (Does a simpler explanation fit the data just as well.) Yes. God created the heavens and the earth. Simple.
So on all six principles of scientific study, it can be argued that the Big Bang fails! It turns out you have to accept either viewpoint on FAITH. And at least to my relatively unbiased interpretation of the facts, it takes a lot more FAITH to believe the atheist story, than the Bible story. And yet the atheists persist in their propaganda campaign to brainwash an entire generation of youth.
Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.
(1) Is Evolution a Theory or a Fact? US National Academy of Sciences 2018
(2) Stephen Jay Gould, “Evolution as Fact and Theory,” Discover 2 (May 1981): 34-37
(See also blogs on “Differing with Dawkins” and “Bang… and Nothing”)
Chapter 13 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
Science vs Reason: Part I
Yes, you read that correctly. The chapter title is NOT faith vs reason. It is science vs reason. Does that sound counter-intuitive? Perhaps it is. But I assure you it is neither unreasonable, nor unscientific!
Much of society currently believes that science has the answer to all humanity’s questions. Science is assumed to be logical, rational, and reasonable. Science is looked on as the dependable and unassailable bastion of all truth. Science can supposedly tell us whether the universe is the grand design of God or an accident of cosmology. Science can supposedly tell us if we are a child of God or the children of apes.
Faith, on the other hand, (at least in the secular media and on college campuses) is portrayed as illogical, irrational, and unreasonable. Faith, according to the secular academics, is for stupid people, and science is for the thoughtful, rational, deductive, “smart” people. Right? (I think not. But perhaps we can discuss that another day.) Today we discuss Science vs Reason.
Science, like mathematics, logic, or philosophy can be a wonderful thing when applied properly to an appropriate subject or area. But by the same token, like any other discipline, science can give misleading or inaccurate information when misapplied. If we applied pure science in medicine, there would be no place for empathy, compassion or intuition. Very ill patients might be evaluated and terminated. Emotions might be ignored. In fact, there would be absolutely nothing precluding experimentation on prisoners and terminating nursing home patients if science alone were our guide.
In a similar vein, pure mathematics cannot solve many types of scientific problems where trial and error are indispensable to provide proof of a theory. And of course, historical studies are not well suited to solving problems in math or science. Yet the current fad among institutions of scientific research is to believe all questions in all areas of learning can either be solved by science or to presume that other areas of study offer solutions inferior to the solutions offered by “science”. Such a belief is not logical, nor sound, nor scientific!
Affording such a superior position to so-called “science” is not only irrational and unreasonable. It is dangerous. It is in effect sham philosophy pretending to be science. If mankind were a mere collection of chemicals, without free will and moral choices, perhaps science alone could be our god. But we are more. Much more.
Consider the following quotation about philosophy. As stated by Julian Friedland,
For roughly 98 percent of the last 2,500 years of Western intellectual history, philosophy was considered the mother of all knowledge. It generated most of the fields of research still with us today. This is why we continue to call our highest degrees Ph.D.’s, namely, philosophy doctorates. At the same time, we live an age in which many seem no longer sure what philosophy is or is good for anymore. (1)
Philosophy as a means of understanding the world clearly has limitations. Philosophers are of no help in building complicated machines or directing complex chemical processes. In fact, philosophy has gotten a bad rap because so many philosophers and their arguments seem totally disconnected from reality. Even at its best, philosophy relies on very specific word choices and is often subject to interpretation and argumentation when viewed from different vantage points. So it seems perfectly understandable that humanity would seek a more solid ground for understanding the universe, and the natural and obvious choice would seem to be science.
But as written by Joseph Rowlands, “The problem is that many scientists sought to escape from the clutches of rationalizing philosophy by jumping into Empiricism, the philosophy that rejects theoretical knowledge and only accepts direct sensory evidence. As Rand said, philosophy is inescapable. You don’t have a choice about having one. If you try to reject philosophy, you’re just enslaving yourself to your implicit philosophy.” (2)
That is the absolute key to today’s discussion. We are not given the choice of philosophy or faith vs science. We are only given the choice of which philosophy we use to approach science. Science in and of itself is nothing but a tool. Like any tool, it can be used to accomplish a variety of tasks. How the tool is applied is critical to the results obtained. A hammer is equally capable of building a house or tearing a house down. Science is perfectly capable of building a rational view of the universe, or of portraying a totally false and indefensible view of the universe.
Paul Bloom of the Atlantic, wrote, “Sociologists and philosophers deserve a lot of credit in reminding us that scientific practice is permeated by group-think, bias, and financial, political, and personal motivations.” (3) The physicist Richard Feynman once wrote that the essence of science was “bending over backwards to prove ourselves wrong.” But he was talking about the collective cultural activity of science, not scientists as individuals, most of whom prefer to be proven right, and who are highly biased to see the evidence in whatever light most favors their preferred theory. (3)
I believe there is sufficient evidence to support the proposition that secular scientists have chosen (perhaps unintentionally) to use the “hammer” of science in ways that are now not building up but tearing down the house of humanity. I believe that the inherent “philosophy of choice” among scientists for the last few decades has been scientism, and we are seeing the tremendous destructive power of that false belief everywhere.
Science vs Reason: Part II
Do you believe the Bible, or do you believe “science”? More importantly, is there any rational or logical reason you must choose between the two?
If one were to listen to the media hype, the Hollywood explanations, prime time TV, or many liberal college professors, one might assume there are just two choices in cosmology. A person can either can “believe science” or one can “have faith” in the Bible story. But is this even remotely true? Is it even sensible to place science and faith in different camps? Or is this entire scenario a false dichotomy?
In chapters four through eleven, we have already discussed the evolutionary side of this issue very thoroughly, and I believe we have more than adequately proven that belief in evolution is neither logical nor scientific. Belief in evolution is clearly a faith-based choice. If you read my blogs at evolutioncreation.net, “Astonishing Ice Age facts“, or “A Totally Modern View on Evolution” you will understand that belief in Evolution is not a scientific choice or preference, rather it is a philosophical one. There are vastly more scientific facts and principles supporting Creation, than those supporting the Big Bang or Evolution.
Perhaps belief in Evolution stems from a prideful desire to elevate man to the point of understanding all of the Universe and Creation. Perhaps, as we will discuss in chapter 19, “To Teach. To Educate. Or to Tell the Truth?” it is just generational indoctrination. Or maybe it originates in the illogical belief that avoiding belief in God as our Creator will somehow avoid the consequences of our sins, failures, and rebellion. Regardless, as I have stated from the beginning, “It takes a lot of FAITH to believe in evolution.”
The evidence (which is outlined in 80 or so blogs over the last year at Debunking-evolution.com) clearly shows that belief in Evolution is a faith based choice. But what of the other side? Is belief in Creation merely a “Scientific cop out”? Do proponents of Intelligent Design (ID) and so-called “creation scientists” abandon scientific processes and base their beliefs totally on religious principles? Not so, according to the following quote from Casey Luskin originally posted at OpposingViews.com. Speaking of ID (Intelligent Design), he writes;
“One can disagree with the conclusions of ID, but one cannot reasonably claim that it is an argument based upon religion, faith, or divine revelation. Nothing critics can say—whether appealing to politically motivated condemnations of ID issued by pro-Darwin scientific authorities or harping upon the religious beliefs of ID proponents—will change the fact that intelligent design is not a “faith-based” argument. Intelligent design has scientific merit because it is an empirically based argument that uses well-accepted scientific methods of historical sciences in order to detect in nature the types of complexity which we understand, from present-day observations, are derived from intelligent causes.”(4)
Luskin further explains, “The scientific method is commonly described as a four-step process involving observations, hypothesis, experiments, and conclusion. As noted, ID begins with the observation that intelligent agents produce complex and specified information (CSI). Design theorists hypothesize that if a natural object was designed, it will contain high levels of CSI. Scientists then perform experimental tests upon natural objects to determine if they contain complex and specified information. One easily testable form of CSI is irreducible complexity, which can be tested and discovered by experimentally reverse-engineering biological structures through genetic knockout experiments to determine if they require all of their parts to function. When experimental work uncovers irreducible complexity in biology, they conclude that such structures were designed.”(5)
Luskin “gets it”. Most secular atheists don’t. There is absolutely NO logical reason to separate science vs faith on issues of cosmology, or any issues related to where humanity or the universe originated. However, if one were to objectively discuss which cosmology has more scientific support, I believe firmly that Creation science would win the argument. Still, the point remains, there is no reason to “choose” one or the other. Science, unimpeded and freely practiced, is not in opposition to Scripture!
As I wrote in the blog “BIG GOD. small god. Why Cosmology Matters.“Atheists say creation is impossible because it would have required something miraculous, something fantastic, something unbelievable, something outside the bounds of science!
Creationists say that The Big Bang and Evolution are impossible because they would have required something miraculous, something fantastic, something unbelievable, something outside the bounds of science.” And BOTH are correct.
Stephen C. Meyer wrote concerning intelligent design (ID), “Proponents of neo-Darwinism contend that the information in life arose via purposeless, blind, and unguided processes. ID proponents contend that the information in life arose via purposeful, intelligently guided processes. Both claims are scientifically testable using scientific methods employed by standard historical sciences. ID thus is based upon the claim that there are “telltale features of living systems and the universe that are best explained by an intelligent cause.”(6)
You have a mind. You have an intellect. (Both of which are, by the way, strong arguments for ID. Both of which are strong arguments against evolution.) You get to choose whether you believe secular stories about a universe that magically appeared from nothing and life that created itself, or to believe in an Almighty Creator God. But you cannot use as your crutch any statement that you don’t believe in Creation because it is not scientific.
(6) Stephen C. Meyer, Not by Chance: From Bacterial Propulsion Systems to Human DNA, Evidence of Intelligent Design Is Everywhere, Natl. Post A22 (Dec. 1, 2005).
The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good. Psalm 14:1NIV
“Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone— while the morning stars sang together and all the angels[a] shouted for joy?” Job 38:4-7 NIV
Chapter 12 of Evolution, the Big Bang, and Other Fables, by A N Mack MD
There are really only two explanations for sex.
First, it is possible that it is simply an animal urge bred into humankind (and most other animals) as an essential part of the propagation of the species, as taught by atheists and evolutionists.
Second, it is possible that it might also be a part of a Divine plan, a gift to mankind from a loving Creator, as taught in the Bible.
Atheists, of course, tend to believe the former. Christians and some other religions believe the latter.
But there is an important point about sex and evolution that is usually ignored by evolution’s proponents. Both natural selection within species and evolution itself are totally dependent on sex. Many evolutionist sites will attempt to say that evolution does not occur in spite of sexual reproduction, it occurs because of sexual reproduction. This is false. When two members of the same species reproduce sexually, the product may appear different than either parent but it is still the same species. A cross between a Labrador and a Poodle is still a dog, just like its parents. A cross between an Irishman and an African is still a human. Mixing genetic material does NOT create new species. It does NOT create new genetic material. It only mixes existing material differently. Those who call this evolution are either misled or are intentionally misleading others.
Natural selection in the classic evolutionary sense would require two advanced (positively mutated) individuals to find one another and procreate. This topic has been discussed by many critics of evolution, and no satisfactory answer has been forwarded. If by some billions to one chance there occurred some form of genetic damage that resulted in a positive mutation (the impossibility of this is discussed elsewhere), then we arrive at another massive barrier to “advancement of the species”. For in all likelihood one of two things would occur. First, the two individuals may now be incompatible for mating (due to differences in DNA) and a damaged progeny or infertile condition arises. Second, the two mate but the genetic damage is erased by the scavenger RNA that monitors and corrects damaged DNA. In this case, they remain exactly as before.
During DNA synthesis, DNA polymerases fix the majority of mis-paired bases in a process called proofreading. If DNA gets damaged, it can be repaired by various mechanisms, including chemical reversal, excision repair, and double-stranded break repair. So in the event of damaged DNA, the cell protects itself. The most likely reason for this mechanism is the prevention of cancer, for as many have stated, the vast, overwhelming majority of mutations are negative or destructive.
All this is just more evidence of the magnificent created marvel we call DNA and its amazing actions during procreation.
As society becomes predominantly secular and atheistic, with the rejection of anything but a token belief in the spiritual or the Divine, we consequently see less respect for the sanctity of life, as well as less understanding of the sacramental nature of marriage. Consequently, our social fabric seems to be ripping apart. Affairs are rampant. Divorce is “normal”. Children are disposable. Mental illness, mass shootings, corporate corruption, individual gluttony, and laziness… all seem to be increasing.
Christians (and some other religions), on the other hand, tend to see the hand of God in the act of sexual intimacy. In fact, it has been called a sacrament. The Bible, of course, tells us in many places to stay away from sexual sin. But it does not stop there. Paul goes on to say that we should encourage sex within the marriage, that sex is an important part of the ongoing marital relationship: The husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband.4 The wife does not have authority over her own body but yields it to her husband. In the same way, the husband does not have authority over his own body but yields it to his wife.5 Do not deprive each other except perhaps by mutual consent and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer. (I Cor. 7:3-5)
The wisdom of God’s plan for the family, and for a marital relationship founded on commitment and mutual gratification, becomes evident as we compare it to the alternative. In other words, looking around we see divorce, gender confusion, the mental health crisis, rampant pornography, pedophilia, and social chaos. These have followed closely on the heels of the breakup of the traditional family. It serves to confirm the wisdom of God’s plan.
While we as a society, and as individuals, value freedom and an unconstrained lifestyle, it appears God placed some constraints on our sexual expression, for reasons that relate to our individual and societal well being.
The family (along with its biblical pro-sex attributes) is designed to be the core, basic unit of a stable society. As stated in an article in The Public Discourse, “The second pillar of a decent society is the institution of the family, which is built upon the comprehensive sexual union of man and woman. No other institution can top the family’s ability to transmit what is pivotal—character formation, values, virtues, and enduring love—to each new generation.“(1)
But this pillar is crumbling. With rampant alcohol and drug use, the recent push toward legalized pedophilia in Europe, the exposure of our young children to sexual images in the media and on cell phones, and even sexual teaching about homosexuality and transgender issues in our public schools, and with the pressure on young children to choose a homosexual or Trans lifestyle even before they comprehend the framework of human sexuality, the family is quite literally in a crisis.(2)
It turns out that worldview does make a difference. In fact, it makes an enormous difference whether our children are raised believing they are a child of God, or believing they are the result of an accident of cosmology. Tragically we have millions of children and young adults now with no spiritual compass and no inherent, foundational belief in self-worth. Entire generations of youth who have been taught that they are no more special or meaningful than a monkey, or a slime mold. Our society and children are paying the price.
And nothing but God’s plan is likely to make things any better.
(See also my blog on “Natural Selection is Magic” at evolutioncreation.net)
Collossians 1:16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him.